By G. Tukash. Marquette University.
Long-term Goal Client will demonstrate ability to interact with others with- out becoming defensive speman 60pills visa prostate 33cc, rationalizing behaviors buy speman 60 pills amex man health question, or expressing grandiose ideas buy speman 60pills overnight delivery androgen hormone 3 ep. Focusing on positive aspects of the personality may help to improve self- concept order 60pills speman with amex prostate and bladder. Encourage client to recognize and verbalize feelings of inad- equacy and need for acceptance from others, and how these feelings provoke defensive behaviors, such as blaming others for own behaviors. Recognition of the problem is the ﬁrst step in the change process toward resolution. Provide immediate, matter-of-fact, nonthreatening feed- back for unacceptable behaviors. Providing this information in a nonthreatening manner may help to eliminate these undesirable behaviors. Help client identify situations that provoke defensiveness and practice through role-playing more appropriate responses. Role-playing provides conﬁdence to deal with difﬁcult situ- ations when they actually occur. Positive feedback enhances self-esteem and encourages repetition of desirable behaviors. Help client set realistic, concrete goals and determine appropriate actions to meet those goals. Evaluate with client the effectiveness of the new behaviors and discuss any modiﬁcations for improvement. Because of Personality Disorders ● 303 limited problem-solving ability, assistance may be required to reassess and develop new strategies in the event that certain of the new coping methods prove ineffective. Client verbalizes correlation between feelings of inadequacy and the need to defend the ego through rationalization and grandiosity. Client interacts with others in group situations without tak- ing a defensive stance. Possible Etiologies (“related to”) [Lack of positive feedback] [Unmet dependency needs] [Retarded ego development] [Repeated negative feedback, resulting in diminished self- worth] [Dysfunctional family system] [Absent, erratic, or inconsistent parental discipline] [Extreme poverty] [History of childhood abuse] Deﬁning Characteristics (“evidenced by”) [Denial of problems obvious to others] [Projection of blame or responsibility for problems] [Grandiosity] [Aggressive behavior] [Frequent use of derogatory and critical remarks against others] [Manipulation of one staff member against another in an at- tempt to gain special privileges] [Inability to form close, personal relationships] Goals/Objectives Short-term Goal Client will verbalize an understanding that derogatory and criti- cal remarks against others reﬂects feelings of self-contempt. It is important for client to achieve something, so plan for activities in which success is likely. Because client is unable (or unwilling) to limit own maladaptive behaviors, assistance is required from staff. All staff must be consistent and follow through with consequences in a matter-of-fact manner. From the onset, client must be aware of the outcomes his or her maladaptive behaviors will effect. Without consistency of follow-through from all staff, a positive outcome cannot be achieved. Encourage client to talk about his or her behavior, the limits, and consequences for violation of those limits. Discussion of feelings regarding these circumstances may help the client achieve some insight into his or her situation. Discuss how manipulative behavior interferes with forma- tion of close, personal relationships. Client may be unaware of others’ perception of him or her and of why these behav- iors are not acceptable to others. Posi- tive reinforcement enhances self-esteem and encourages repetition of desirable behaviors. Encourage client to confront the fear of failure by attending therapy activities and undertaking new tasks. Help client identify positive aspects of the self and develop ways to change the characteristics that are socially unaccept- able. Individuals with low self-esteem often have difﬁculty recognizing their positive attributes. They may also lack problem-solving ability and require assistance to formulate a plan for implementing the desired changes. Enforce limit-setting in a matter-of-fact manner, imposing previously established consequences for violations. Negative feedback can be ex- tremely threatening to a person with low self-esteem, pos- sibly aggravating the problem. Encourage independence in the performance of personal responsibilities and in decision-making related to own self- care. Positive reinforcement enhances self-esteem and encour- ages repetition of desirable behaviors. Help client increase level of self-awareness through critical examination of feelings, attitudes, and behaviors.
The first The establishment of this and other organiza- published account of this experience appeared in tions promoting alternative and complementary the New England Journal of Medicine generic 60pills speman mastercard prostate cancer treatment options, and Cousins medicine would have likely been a source of per- received an honorary degree in medicine from xxii The Encyclopedia of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Yale University cheap speman 60 pills with visa prostate oncology journals. Since then buy 60pills speman overnight delivery prostate cancer 5k san antonio, laughter has actually and all the personal attraction that goes with been scientifically measured and shown to reduce them cheap speman 60pills on line man healthcom pay bill pay bill. People in general have given little attention stress and pain by creating changes in certain to health until it was destroyed. In addi- waited until they were ill before they thought of tion, increased antibody production in the upper the proper care of their bodies. Then they called respiratory tract; an increase of lymphocytes, in a doctor and there ended their responsibility, or cells that fight tumors and viruses; and the lung- at least so they thought. The idea that they alone expanding, heart rate–increasing exercise of might be responsible for their health or disease laughing all serve to encourage people to heed and that responsibility for their recovery rested on Proverbs 17:22: “A merry heart doeth good like a them and not on the doctor was foreign to their medicine. To them health and disease were largely Other respected ﬁgures in our society also con- matters of chance. All this has passed, or is rapidly tribute admirably to a more global view of healing. Health and disease are now known to be The Harvard-educated novelist and filmmaker subject to laws eternal and unchangeable, as are Michael Crichton, M. Individual responsibility for Power to Heal, wrote: one’s own health or disease is coming to be gen- erally recognized. With the generally growing Accompanying the use of more refined technol- recognition of this responsibility has come an ogy to prevent and treat illness, psychoimmunol- increasing interest in ways and means of preserv- ogy, the science that deals with the mind’s role in ing and restoring health. People are interested in helping the immune system to fight disease, will learning how to care for their own health. They become a vitally important clinical field in the are no longer content to place an almost unlim- years to come—perhaps the most important med- ited faith in potions and pills. The encouragement of healthy thinking may dating back so many years that pinpoints the eventually become an integral aspect of treat- medical climate of today. Does it imply that we ment for everything from allergies to liver trans- have stagnated to a certain degree in our thinking plants. Pressed both grant that perhaps this “New Age” simply means by patients and its own advancing technology, we are at last opening our arms in a more unified, medicine will change to focus from treatment to consistent way to all the healing methods avail- enhancement, from repair to improvement, from able on our planet since the beginning of time? Alternative and complementary medicine need For all its seemingly newfound accolades and not be “on the fringe” but rather a meritorious anecdotal successes, what we call alternative med- component among a staggering array of modern icine really began when humankind ﬁrst recog- comforts and conveniences. Finally a visible force nized the need to deal with and counteract in the mainstream, the field of alternative thera- abnormalities and ailments that emerged in their pies pours into American homes by way of televi- lives. The ancients developed their own medicines, sion and other broadcast media, newspapers, treatments that ultimately involved acknowledg- books, and magazines, including Alternative Thera- ment of a mind-body connection, from whatever pies in Health and Medicine, a peer-reviewed journal nature provided. The Ameri- individual, and with it vitality of mind and heart can psychologist and philosopher William James Introduction xxiii (1842–1910) summed it up so many years ago: feel with their own hearts,” many of us have in “The great revolution of our generation is the dis- fact grown willing to accept and choose options covery that human beings, by changing the inner that defy specific explanation, and still more are attitudes of their minds, can change the outer beginning to follow that lead. Now, at last, ours is a relentless, all- “Few are those who see with their own eyes and embracing quest for healing and flourishing. Aama is said to cause indigestion, bad breath, a coated tongue, and other gastrointestinal prob- acupoints Also called acupuncture points or trig- lems. The accumulation of these unusable ger points, speciﬁc places along a network of nerves “remains” in the body is also said to instigate an and other bodily structures used as landmarks over immune-system problem, in which they may be which to apply pressure, as in acupressure; insert attacked by antibodies, thus causing the aama sites acupuncture needles; or apply other methods to the to swell, lodge themselves in body tissues, and cre- skin in order to release the ﬂow of energy so an ail- ate dysfunction. For example, one Ayurvedic belief ing or dysfunctional organ or body part may heal. A homeopathic belief relates acupressure An ancient Asian technique of nat- physical aama to psychological aama, involving ural healing, at least 5000 years old, involving the stress or any type of mental “overload,” as a possi- use of the hands and ﬁngers to apply pressure on ble cause of physical symptoms. The third most popular method for treating pain abortifacient Any agent, substance, or method and illness in the world and considered a painless, intended to induce an abortion, that is, deliberate nontoxic method for redirecting ch’i, the Chinese termination of a pregnancy, usually during the ear- word for energy, acupressure (and its close associ- liest stage. When suppository or injection before 47 days have ch’i ﬂows unimpeded throughout the body, well- elapsed since a woman’s last menstrual period if being results. Related to acupuncture without However, various methods of alternative medi- the use of needles, acupressure is said to be effec- cine attempt to treat miscarriage, the unexplained, tive as disease prevention as well as a component spontaneous, and undesired loss of an embryo or of traditional treatments for arthritis, carpal tunnel fetus. For symptoms of distress, shock, bleeding, syndrome, chronic pain, symptoms of addiction and pain, practitioners of alternative medicine may withdrawal, motion sickness, multiple sclerosis, employ astringent remedies to discourage bleeding, insomnia, fatigue, bronchitis, colds and ﬂu, arthri- herbal sedatives, aromatherapy, Bach Flower tis, allergies, pneumonia, toothache, sinusitis, sciat- Remedies, the homeopathic substances ignatia and ica, nausea, hemorrhoids, ear infection, diarrhea, 1 2 acupuncture fever, indigestion—approximately 3,000 maladies were treated with acupressure daily for 21 days on altogether. A According to the Complementary Wellness Pro- marked improvement was found in 29 percent of fessional Association (http://www. The association says that regular, systematic Acupuncture is reported to relieve blockage, pres- treatment usually gets the best results. Treatment sure, or other ill effects from the body’s 14 major three times each day for ﬁve to 10 minutes, or meridians, or energy channels. Rendered as qi or every two hours if necessary, reﬂects the concept ch’i (pronounced “chee”), the ﬂow of this energy or that acupressure’s positive effects are cumulative— life force is essential to health. Given a new credi- one cannot overdose because the treatments are bility and acknowledgment by Western practition- safe. However, they are not recommended for ers, acupuncture studies suggest that the technique administration directly after a meal, and pregnant stimulates the release of the body’s natural, opiate- women should avoid pressure at certain points like substances called endorphins.
Fitness refers to the extent to which having a given characteristic helps the individual organism survive and reproduce at a higher rate than do other members of the species who do not have the characteristic buy 60 pills speman with amex man health institute. Fitter organisms pass on their genes more successfully to later generations cheap speman 60 pills prostate kidney failure, making the characteristics that produce fitness more likely to become part of the organism’s nature than characteristics that do not produce fitness speman 60pills otc prostate vitamins supplements. For example purchase speman 60pills fast delivery prostate cancer 40, it has been argued that the emotion of jealousy has survived over time in men because men who experience jealousy are more fit than men who do not. Despite its importance in psychological theorizing, evolutionary psychology also has some limitations. Unlike the fossils that are used to learn about the physical evolution of species, we cannot know which psychological characteristics our ancestors possessed or did not possess; we can only make guesses about this. Because it is difficult to directly test evolutionary theories, it is always possible that the explanations we apply are made up after the fact to account for observed data  (Gould & Lewontin, 1979). Nevertheless, the evolutionary approach is important to psychology because it provides logical explanations for why we have many psychological characteristics. Psychodynamic Psychology Perhaps the school of psychology that is most familiar to the general public is the psychodynamic approach to understanding behavior, which was championed by Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) and his followers. Psychodynamic psychology is an approach to understanding human behavior that focuses on the role of unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories. Freud developed his theories about behavior through extensive analysis of the patients that he treated in his private clinical practice. Freud believed that many of the problems that his patients experienced, including anxiety, depression, and sexual dysfunction, were the result of the effects of painful childhood experiences that the person could no longer remember. Freud’s ideas were extended by other psychologists whom he influenced, including Carl Jung (1875–1961), Alfred Adler (1870–1937), Karen Horney (1855–1952), and Erik Erikson (1902– 1994). These and others who follow the psychodynamic approach believe that it is possible to help the patient if the unconscious drives can be remembered, particularly through a deep and thorough exploration of the person‘s early sexual experiences and current sexual desires. The founders of the school of psychodynamics were primarily practitioners who worked with individuals to help them understand and confront their psychological symptoms. Although they did not conduct much research on their ideas, and although later, more sophisticated tests of their theories have not always supported their proposals, psychodynamics has nevertheless had substantial impact on the field of psychology, and indeed on thinking about human behavior  more generally (Moore & Fine, 1995). The importance of the unconscious in human behavior, the idea that early childhood experiences are critical, and the concept of therapy as a way of improving human lives are all ideas that are derived from the psychodynamic approach and that remain central to psychology. Behaviorism and the Question of Free Will Although they differed in approach, both structuralism and functionalism were essentially studies of the mind. The psychologists associated with the school of behaviorism, on the other hand, were reacting in part to the difficulties psychologists encountered when they tried to use introspection to understand behavior. Behaviorism is a school of psychology that is based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore that psychologists should limit their attention to the study of behavior itself. Behaviorists believe that the human mind is a “black box‖ into which stimuli are sent and from which responses are received. They argue that there is no point in trying to determine what happens in the box because we can successfully predict behavior without knowing what happens inside the mind. Furthermore, behaviorists believe that it is possible to develop laws of learning that can explain all behaviors. Watson was influenced in large part by the work of the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936), who had discovered that dogs would salivate at the sound of a tone that had previously been associated with the presentation of food. Watson and the other behaviorists began to use these Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. For instance, in Pavlov’s research the stimulus (either the food or, after learning, the tone) would produce the response of salivation in the dogs. In his research Watson found that systematically exposing a child to fearful stimuli in the presence of objects that did not themselves elicit fear could lead the child to respond with a fearful behavior to the presence of the stimulus (Watson & Rayner, 1920; Beck, Levinson, &  Irons, 2009). In the best known of his studies, an 8-month-old boy named Little Albert was used as the subject. Here is a summary of the findings: The boy was placed in the middle of a room; a white laboratory rat was placed near him and he was allowed to play with it. In later trials, the researchers made a loud sound behind Albert’s back by striking a steel bar with a hammer whenever the baby touched the rat. After several such pairings of the two stimuli, the child was again shown the rat. In line with the behaviorist approach, the boy had learned to associate the white rat with the loud noise, resulting in crying. Skinner used the ideas of stimulus and response, along with the application of rewards or reinforcements, to train pigeons and other animals. And he used the general principles of behaviorism to develop theories about how best to teach children and how to create societies that were peaceful and productive.