By F. Armon. Salem International University.
Mutagenic agents The chemical substances and environmental conditions which cause mutations in the organisms are called mutagens or mutagenic agents buy dramamine 50 mg free shipping symptoms of kidney stones. Chemical mutagenic agents Chemicals can also be used for inducing mutations in the organisms dramamine 50 mg with mastercard medicine website. Ethyl methane sulphonate 123 has been extensively used for inducing mutations in microorganisms generic dramamine 50mg overnight delivery symptoms 3 days dpo, higher plants and animals buy 50mg dramamine mastercard symptoms 2 weeks after conception. Significance of mutation m Mutations play an important role in the origin of new species and serves as a tool for evolution. Mutant varieties of wheat are early maturing, disease resistance and they are enriched with protein. Cistron is an unit of function, recon is the unit of recombination and muton is the unit of mutation. Chromosomal aberrations In an organism, any visible abnormality in chromosome number or structure from the diploid set is known as chromosomal aberration. The chromosomal aberrations based on the structure of the chromosome are of four types deletion, duplication, inversion and transversion. Structural chromosomal aberrations Deletion The loss of a segment of the genetic material in a chromosome is called deletion. When the deletion occurs near the end of the chromosome, then it is called terminal deletion. When the deletion occurs in the middle of the chromosome then, it is called intercalary deletion. Duplication When a segment of a chromosome is present more than once in a chromosome then, it is called duplication. Inversion It is another chromosomal abnormality in which, the order of genes in a chromosomal segment is reversed by an angle of 180. In pericentric inversion, the inverted segment of the chromosome contains centromere. For example the 17 human chromosome is acrocentric, while in Chimpanzee the corresponding chromosome is metacentric. In paracentric inversion, the inverted segment of the chromosome has no centromere. When translocation occurs between two non-homologous chromosomes, then it is called reciprocal translocation or illegitimate crossingover. In heterozygous translocation, one member of each pair of chromosomes is normal and the other member is with interchanged segment. But in homozygous translocation, both the members of paired chromosomes have translocated segments. Numerical chromosomal aberrations Each species of an organism has a specific number of chromosomes in its somatic cells. Alterations in the number of chromosomes from the diploid set is called numerical chromosomal aberration. Euploidy Euploidy is the variation in the chromosome number that occurs due to increase or decrease of full set of chromosomes. Diploidy In most of the plants and animals, the somatic cells contain two sets of chromosome. Polyploidy Addition of one or more sets of chromosomes to the diploid set results in polyploidy. Watermelon, grapes and banana are autotriploids, whereas apple is an autotetraploid. Allopolyploidy Increase in one or more haploid set of chromosomes from two different species result in allopolyploidy. It is obtained by crossing a wheat Triticum durum (2n = 4x = 28) and a rye Secale cereale (2n = 2x = 14). Then the chromosome number is doubled using colchicine and it becomes an hexaploid. Parent Triticum durum x Secale cereale 2n = 28 2n = 14 (2n = 4x = 28) (2n = 2x = 14) F hybrid (sterile)1 2n = 21 (2n = 3x = 21) Chromosome doubled (Colchicine treatment) 2n = 42 (2n = 6x = 42) Hexaploid Triticale 129 Aneuploidy Variation that involves one or two chromosomes within the diploid set of an organism results in aneuploidy. Hypoploidy Decrease in one or two chromosomes from the diploid set is described as hypoploidy. Nullisomy is the condition in which a pair of homologous chromosomes is lost from the diploid set i. Hyperploidy Addition of one or two chromosomes to the diploid set of chromosome results in hyperploidy. Trisomy results due to the addition of one chromosome to diploid set of chromosomes. Tetrasomy results due to the addition of two chromosomes to diploid set of chromosome.
Incidence of dementia: Does gender Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders buy dramamine 50 mg with visa medications 4 less canada, make a difference? Diagnosis and treat- feels sad or empty) or observations made by others ment of Alzheimer disease and related disorders purchase dramamine 50mg on-line treatment lead poisoning. Depression This widely used term may be In making these diagnoses one must exclude those that referred to as a symptom effective 50 mg dramamine medicine emblem, a syndrome purchase dramamine 50mg treatment ingrown toenail, an illness, or a may be caused by other medical conditions and sub- disorder. Treatments have been mood and affect are very common and much of psy- based on the newer knowledge about causes, espe- chiatry is concerned with trying to define when a syn- cially in the area of development of new medications as drome reaches a threshold for becoming an illness and well as the refinement of many psychotherapies. Depressive illnesses require a cer- Mental disorders affect both men and women tain severity and duration of the symptoms in order to equally, but the patterns and presentations are often dif- qualify for a diagnosis. Much of what we from conditions that have not met formal diagnostic cri- know and much of the current research are not yet suf- teria. This situation is often referred to as sub-syndromal ficient to completely understand why these differences depression. Depressive disorders are the most common mental Starting in adolescence and extending through illnesses and are the second leading cause of disability menopause, women experience twice the rates of depres- in the Western world after heart disease. The diagnosis sive disorders (major depressive disorder, dysthymia, 210 Depression rapid cycling bipolar disease, and seasonal affective or harming others. Women also experience a feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, and being higher incidence of anxiety disorders such as phobias, trapped in some situation. Dysthymia is a more minor agoraphobia, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disor- mood change lasting for 2 years or more. Women often affective disorder is a mood change that occurs during have other mental disorders that accompany the depres- times of the year when there is less light. Rapid cycling sive ones, such as anxiety problems or alcohol and sub- bipolar disorder refers to a manic depressive illness stance abuse. Men tend to have higher rates of alcohol and where there are four or more episodes of mania or drug abuse. While the causes for week or more before the onset of menses and are usu- gender differences remain unclear some theories have ally relieved with bleeding. However, most likely explanation is that biological and psycho- about 45% of women experience much more severe logical factors may be involved. Since differences symptoms that can interfere with their functioning at appear between men and women in the likelihood of school, work, or with interpersonal relationships. Research is under way to clarify the relationship tribute to the gender differences in the rates of depres- of ovarian hormones to brain neurotransmitters, adrenal sion between men and women. Some of the normal psychological changes shown the effectiveness of preventive treatment by include anxiety, mood lability, and concerns about giving medications during pregnancy or right after bodily changes and well-being of the fetus. The most common symptoms are emo- distractibility, and inability to focus attention. These feelings come as hospitalization is indicated plus treatment with antipsy- a surprise to many women who are so pleased to have chotic medications as well as psychotherapy. Often, rest viduals should not be left alone until they show marked is helpful but no other special treatments are needed. Milder forms of period, which is a major hormonal transition like depressive illnesses are called adjustment reactions with puberty, may present women with more depressive and depressed mood. Recent always include a careful physical exam plus laboratory work interestingly suggests that women with major tests for thyroid function. It is important to Pregnancy weigh the risk benefits of use of medications in the pregnant and postpartum woman who is nursing. Some medications can be used safely and should be Suggested Reading carefully considered. This is a common con- Stasis dermatitis usually occurs on the lower legs dition that has a variety of different causes and presen- and is characterized by itchy red and scaly patches. It may be acute or chronic and extent of Over time, it leaves behind brown patches that are gen- involvement may be localized or generalized. The cause is attributed to fluid Depending on the specific features, various types of accumulation in the tissues beneath the skin, and is dermatitis have been classified. Itching is a common often seen in association with varicose veins or ankle feature. Improving the condition that is causing fluid Atopic dermatitis is most common in infants and buildup in the legs is the most beneficial treatment, and children and is often seen in individuals with family topical corticosteroids are often used if the situation is members who have asthma or hayfever. Because stasis dermatitis is usually asymptom- infancy and many children outgrow it by adolescence. Over time, the skin in these areas becomes thickened with a leathery appear- Suggested Reading ance. Archives of steroids or newer nonsteroid prescription medications Dermatology, 125, 276286.
When you have finished discount dramamine 50 mg with amex medications jamaica, allow the anaesthetist to ventilate the patient with oxygen to prevent bronchospasm effective dramamine 50mg medications definition. For rigid instruments discount dramamine 50mg online treatment viral conjunctivitis, a multi-enzyme detergent agent is useful where immersion sinks are unavailable buy dramamine 50mg with mastercard medicine to stop vomiting. A head lamp, laryngeal mirrors and a spirit lamp, 4% lidocaine in a laryngeal spray. This is a dying art, but still very useful in places where there is lack of advanced equipment; nonetheless the success rate is only around 60% but practice makes perfect! Sit opposite the patient, and arrange him and the light so that it shines down his throat. Warm an angled mirror in the flame of a spirit lamp, and test its temperature on the back of your left hand; it should feel Fig. D, views of the the mirror against the soft palate, push a larynx: normal cords in inspiration (1), in phonation (2). A ragged ulcer is likely to be If the neck is flexed, and extended sufficiently, the mouth a carcinoma. In theory, these are simple procedures; your line of sight passes up behind the soft palate. Anaesthesia is Benign oedematous nasal polyps: in some populations difficult, and the skill of your anaesthetist is the main very common. This is more difficult than the other Carcinoma of the base of tongue: an ulcer or an irregular indications, so if you are new to bronchoscopy, bleeding, exophytic mass. Inhaled foreign bodies in the larynx and tracheobronchial Laryngitis: swollen, red vocal cords, usually symmetrical. This may be followed by a latent interval, Laryngeal carcinoma: an early cancer is a small white during which there are no signs, especially if the nut has plaque (leukoplakia) but as it grows, it can become gone far down the bronchial tree. Antibiotics may relieve the symptoms temporarily, but they always return when treatment stops. Even if you can successfully pass one, removing a foreign body is Ascaris worms: these may occasionally be aspirated when difficult, and sometimes impossible. Leaving it inside, there is intestinal obstruction and profuse vomiting of a however, results in suppuration and chronic disability, bolus of worms (12. If you are want to remove foreign bodies from the lower respiratory tract, you will need these. Darken the theatre so that you do not have to use the bulbs at high voltages which shorten their lives. Measure a length on the shaft of the forceps the same as the length of the bronchoscope; then you will know when the tip is beyond the length of the bronchoscope. Have a good suction ready, several sized bronchoscopes (the one suitable for a child will be of smaller diameter than the childs little finger), as well as a variety of foreign body and biopsy forceps, and a wire hook to remove a Fig. Maintain oxygenation of the patient A, after induction the anaesthetist moves to the patients left. If you are present when a child inhales a foreign body, turn The liquid will initiate a cough reflex. Before you pass the him upside down and bang the back of the chest: he may instrument, spray the cords with more lidocaine and wait cough it out. There is usually (1);If a mother comes to you saying that her child has some leakage of gas, so you will need a good flow of inhaled a peanut or other foreign body, believe her, as she oxygen. If you cannot grasp the foreign body, try to pass down a The anaesthetist must be in charge, and decides when he Fogarty balloon catheter beyond it, and inflate the balloon must give oxygen. It is usually best then to withdraw the bronchoscope and The chest must expand during ventilation. If there is much pus, suck that because you have passed the bronchoscope into the out too. To identify the bronchial tree (11-23): on the right, look Lie the patient flat with pillows behind the back. Then look into the bronchi of the lateral, anterior, posterior, and medial basal lobes. Slip its beak between the cords and advance it downwards, sucking out the secretions as you do so. If he is suffocating or pack), and then keeping in the midline, through the because of the foreign body, you will have to persist. If it slips off while you are withdrawing it through the (1) Make sure you are not going down the oesophagus cords, try again. If necessary, squirt a little saline down the (you must recognize the cords on entry). So hold its If the foreign body rolls up and down the trachea, handle in your right hand.